Building a collaborative TextArea

In this tutorial, you’ll learn how to use the SharedString distributed data structure (DDS) with React to create a collaborative text area. SharedString is a DDS with specialized features and behaviors for working with text.

To jump ahead into the finished demo, check out the SharedString example in our FluidExamples repo.

The following image shows a textarea open in four browsers. The same text is in all four.

Four browsers with the textarea open with the same text.

The next image shows the same four clients after an edit was made in one of the browsers. Note that the text has updated in all four browsers.

Four browsers with the textarea open after an edit was made in one browser.


This tutorial assumes that you are familiar with the Fluid Framework Overview and that you have completed the Quick Start. You should also be familiar with the basics of React, creating React projects, and React Hooks.

Create the project

  1. Open a Command Prompt and navigate to the parent folder where you want to create the project, e.g., C:\My Fluid Projects.

  2. Run the following command at the prompt. (Note that the CLI is npx, not npm. It was installed when you installed Node.js.)

    npx create-react-app collaborative-text-area-tutorial --template typescript
  3. The project is created in a subfolder named collaborative-text-area-tutorial. Navigate to it with the command cd fluid-react-tutorial.

  4. The project uses two Fluid libraries:

    Library Description
    fluid-framework Contains the SharedString distributed data structure that synchronizes text across clients. This object will hold the most recent text update made by any client.
    @fluidframework/tinylicious-client Defines the connection to a Fluid server and defines the starting schema for the Fluid container.
    @fluid-experimental/react-inputs Contains the SharedStringHelper class that helps provides a simple APIs to interact with the SharedString object.

    Run the following command to install the libraries.

    npm install @fluidframework/tinylicious-client @fluid-experimental/react-inputs fluid-framework

Code the project

  1. Open the file \src\App.tsx in your code editor. Delete all the default import statements except the one that imports App.css. Then delete all the markup from the return statement. The file should look like the following:

    import "./App.css";
    function App() {
      return (
    export default App;
  2. Add the following import statements. Note: CollaborativeTextArea will be defined later.

    import React from "react";
    import { TinyliciousClient } from "@fluidframework/tinylicious-client";
    import { SharedString } from "fluid-framework";
    import { CollaborativeTextArea } from "./CollaborativeTextArea";
    import { SharedStringHelper } from "@fluid-experimental/react-inputs";

Get Fluid Data

  1. The Fluid runtime will bring changes made to the text from any client to the current client, but Fluid is agnostic about the UI framework. You can use a React hook to get the Fluid data from the SharedString object into the view layer (the React state). Add the following code below the import statements. This method is called when the application loads the first time, and the returned value is assigned to a React state property.

      const useSharedString = (): SharedString => {
      const [sharedString, setSharedString] = React.useState();
      const getFluidData = async () => {
        // TODO 1: Configure the container.
        // TODO 2: Get the container from the Fluid service.
        // TODO 3: Return the Fluid SharedString object.
      // TODO 4: Get the Fluid Data data on app startup and store in the state
      // TODO 5: Return the SharedString Object
  2. Replace TODO 1 with the following code.

      const client: TinyliciousClient = new TinyliciousClient();
      const containerSchema: ContainerSchema = {
        initialObjects: { sharedString: SharedString }
  3. Replace TODO 2 with the following code. Note that containerId is being stored on the URL hash, and if there is no containerId a new container is created instead.

      let container: IFluidContainer;
      const containerId = window.location.hash.substring(1);
      if (!containerId) {
        container = (await client.createContainer(containerSchema)).container;
        const id = await container.attach();
        window.location.hash = id;
      else {
        container = (await client.getContainer(containerId, containerSchema)).container;
        if (!container.connected) {
          await new Promise<void>((resolve) => {
            container.once("connected", () => {
  4. Replace TODO 3 with the following code.

    return container.initialObjects.sharedString as SharedString;
  5. Replace TODO 4 with the following code. Note about this code:

    • By setting an empty dependency array at the end of the useEffect, it is ensured that this function only gets called once.
    • Since setSharedString is a state-changing method, it will cause the React App component to immediately rerender.
    React.useEffect(() => {
        .then(data => setSharedString(data));
    }, []);
  6. Finally, replace TODO 5 with the following code.

    return sharedString as SharedString;

Move the Fluid Data to the view

Inside the App() function, add the following code. Note about this code:

  • The sharedString object returned from the code above is used to create a SharedStringHelper object, which is a class that provides helper APIs to interact with the sharedString object.
  • Next, the SharedStringHelper object is passed into the CollaborativeTextArea React component, which integrates SharedString with the default textarea HTML element to enable collaboration.
const sharedString = useSharedString();

if (sharedString) {
  return (
    <div className="app">
      <CollaborativeTextArea sharedStringHelper={new SharedStringHelper(sharedString)} />
} else {
  return <div />;

Create CollaborativeTextArea component

CollaborativeTextArea is a React component which uses a SharedStringHelper object to control the text of an HTML textarea element. Follow the below steps to create this component.

  1. Create a new file CollaborativeTextArea.tsx inside of the \src directory.

  2. Add the following import statements and declare the CollaborativeTextArea component:

    import React from "react";
    import { ISharedStringHelperTextChangedEventArgs, SharedStringHelper } from "@fluid-experimental/react-inputs";
    interface ICollaborativeTextAreaProps {
      sharedStringHelper: SharedStringHelper;
    export const CollaborativeTextArea = (props) => {
      // TODO 1: Setup React state and references
      // TODO 2: Handle a change event in the textarea
      // TODO 3: Set the selection in textarea element (update the UI)
      // TODO 4: Store current selection from the textarea element in the React ref
      // TODO 5: Detect changes in sharedStringHelper and update React/UI as necessary
      // TODO 6: Create and configure a textarea element that will be used in App.tsx
  3. Replace TODO 1 with the following code. To learn more about useRef, check out the React documentation.

    const sharedStringHelper = props.sharedStringHelper;
    const textareaRef = React.useRef<HTMLTextAreaElement>(null);
    const selectionStartRef = React.useRef<number>(0);
    const selectionEndRef = React.useRef<number>(0);
    const [text, setText] = React.useState<string>(sharedStringHelper.getText());
  4. Replace TODO 2 with the following code. This function will be called when a change is made to the textarea element.

    const handleChange = (ev: React.FormEvent<HTMLTextAreaElement>) => {
      // First get and stash the new textarea state
      if (!textareaRef.current) {
        throw new Error("Handling change without current textarea ref?");
      const textareaElement = textareaRef.current;
      const newText = textareaElement.value;
      // After a change to the textarea content we assume the selection is gone (just a caret)
      const newCaretPosition = textareaElement.selectionStart;
      // Next get and stash the old React state
      const oldText = text;
      const oldSelectionStart = selectionStartRef.current;
      const oldSelectionEnd = selectionEndRef.current;
      // Next update the React state with the values from the textarea
      // Finally update the SharedString with the values after deducing what type of change it was.
      const isTextInserted = newCaretPosition - oldSelectionStart > 0;
      if (isTextInserted) {
        const insertedText = newText.substring(oldSelectionStart, newCaretPosition);
        const isTextReplaced = oldSelectionEnd - oldSelectionStart > 0;
        if (!isTextReplaced) {
          sharedStringHelper.insertText(insertedText, oldSelectionStart);
        } else {
          sharedStringHelper.replaceText(insertedText, oldSelectionStart, oldSelectionEnd);
      } else {
        // Text was removed
        const charactersDeleted = oldText.length - newText.length;
        sharedStringHelper.removeText(newCaretPosition, newCaretPosition + charactersDeleted);
  5. Replace TODO 3 with the following code. This function sets the selection directly in the textarea element.

    const setTextareaSelection = (newStart: number, newEnd: number) => {
      if (!textareaRef.current) {
        throw new Error("Trying to set selection without current textarea ref?");
      const textareaElement = textareaRef.current;
      textareaElement.selectionStart = newStart;
      textareaElement.selectionEnd = newEnd;
  6. Replace TODO 4 with the following code. This function sets the selection from the textarea element and sets it in the React refs.

    const storeSelectionInReact = () => {
      if (!textareaRef.current) {
        throw new Error("Trying to remember selection without current textarea ref?");
      const textareaElement = textareaRef.current;
      const textareaSelectionStart = textareaElement.selectionStart;
      const textareaSelectionEnd = textareaElement.selectionEnd;
      selectionStartRef.current = textareaSelectionStart;
      selectionEndRef.current = textareaSelectionEnd;
  7. Replace TODO 5 with the following code. Note about this code:

    • By setting the dependency array at the end of useEffect to include sharedStringHelper, it is ensured that this function is called each time the sharedStringHelper object is changed.
    React.useEffect(() => {
      const handleTextChanged = (event: ISharedStringHelperTextChangedEventArgs) => {
        const newText = sharedStringHelper.getText();
        if (!event.isLocal) {
          const newSelectionStart = event.transformPosition(selectionStartRef.current);
          const newSelectionEnd = event.transformPosition(selectionEndRef.current);
          setTextareaSelection(newSelectionStart, newSelectionEnd);
      sharedStringHelper.on("textChanged", handleTextChanged);
      return () => {"textChanged", handleTextChanged);
    }, [sharedStringHelper]);
  8. Finally, replace TODO 6 with the following code to create the textarea element.

    return (
        value={text} />

Start the Fluid server and run the application

In the Command Prompt, run the following command to start the Fluid service. Note that tinylicious is the name of the Fluid service that runs on localhost.

npx tinylicious

Open a new Command Prompt and navigate to the root of the project; for example, C:\My Fluid Projects\collaborative-text-area-tutorial. Start the application server with the following command. The application opens in your browser. This may take a few minutes.

npm run start

Paste the URL of the application into the address bar of another tab or even another browser to have more than one client open at a time. Edit the text on any client and see the text change and synchronize on all the clients.

Next steps

  • Try extending the demo with more Fluid DDSes and a more complex UI.
  • Consider using the Fluent UI React controls to give the application the look and feel of Microsoft 365. To install them in your project run the following in the command prompt: npm install @fluentui/react.
  • For an example that will scale to larger applications and larger teams, check out the React Starter Template in the FluidExamples repo.


When you make changes to the code the project will automatically rebuild and the application server will reload. However, if you make changes to the container schema, they will only take effect if you close and restart the application server. To do this, give focus to the Command Prompt and press Ctrl-C twice. Then run npm run start again.