Data modeling

Fluid offers flexible ways to model your collaborative data. Your application can declaratively define a set of shared objects that are immediately and always available to all clients; or, for more complex scenarios, your application can create shared objects at runtime only when a user takes a particular path through the application.

Defining initial objects

The most straightforward way to use Fluid is by defining initial objects that are created when the Fluid container is created, and exist for the lifetime of the container. Initial objects serve as a base foundation for a Fluid schema – a definition of the shape of the data.

Initial objects are always connected – that is, they are connected to the Fluid service and are fully distributed. Your code can access initial objects via the initialObjects property on the FluidContainer object.

Your code must define at least one initialObject. In many cases one or more initial objects is sufficient to build a Fluid application.

Example usage

The example below creates a new container with a SharedMap and a SharedCell as initialObjects.

About this code note:

  • client represents an object defined by the service-specific client library. See the documentation for the service you are using for more details about how to use its service-specific client library.
  • It is a good practice to deconstruct the object that is returned by createContainer into its two main parts; container and services. For an example of the use of the latter, see Working with the audience .
const schema = {
    initialObjects: {
        customMap: SharedMap,
        "custom-cell": SharedCell,

const { container, services } = await client.createContainer(schema);

const initialObjects = container.initialObjects;
const map = container.initialObjects.customMap;
const cell = container.initialObjects["custom-cell"];

Dynamic objects

A shared object can be created by the container at runtime. Dynamic objects are both created and loaded dynamically. When your code creates an object dynamically, it must store a reference to the object within another shared object so that your code can later retrieve it.

Creating a dynamic object

A FluidContainer object has a create function that takes a shared object type (that is, a distributed data structure (DDS) type or a Data Object type) and returns a new shared object. But only shared object types that are specified in the schema’s dynamicObjectTypes array can be dynamically created.


Data Objects are currently beta and should not be used in production applications.

Dynamically created objects are local only (in-memory) and cannot be shared with other clients unless a reference to each of them is stored in a connected shared object.

const schema = {
    dynamicObjectTypes: [ SharedCell, SharedMap ],

const { container, services } = await client.getContainer(id, schema);

const newCell = await container.create(SharedCell); // Create a new SharedCell
const newMap = await container.create(SharedMap); // Create a new SharedMap


Another way to think about initialObjects and dynamic objects is as follows:

With initialObjects, you’re telling Fluid both the type of the object and the key you’ll use to later retrieve the object. This is statically defined, so Fluid can create the object for you and ensure it’s always available via the key your code defined.

On the other hand, with dynamic objects, you’re telling Fluid what object types it can create, but that’s all. When your code creates a dynamic object using container.create, that object is in-memory only. If you want to load that shared object again later, your code must store a reference to it within another shared object. In a sense, you’re defining the “key” to access that data again later, just as you did with initialObjects, but you define it dynamically at runtime.

Using handles to store and retrieve shared objects

All shared objects supported by Fluid have a handle property that can be used to store and retrieve them from other shared objects. Objects created dynamically must be stored before they are collaborative. As you will see below, the act of storing a handle is what links the new dynamic object to the underlying data model and is how other clients learn that it exists.

Dynamically created objects need to be stored on an already connected shared object, so the most common case is to store references to them in an initial object property, because initial objects are connected on creation. However, you can also store dynamic objects in other connected dynamic objects. In this sense shared objects are arbitrarily nestable. But the hierarchy of referenced objects must rest in an initial object that holds the references to the first level of dynamic objects. So, there is always at least one initial object in every container.

When retrieving dynamically created objects, your code needs to first get the object’s handle then get the object from the handle. This reference-based approach enables the Fluid Framework to virtualize the data underneath, only loading objects when they are requested.

The following example demonstrates dynamically creating a SharedCell and storing it in the SharedMap initial object using the handle. It also demonstrates retrieving the SharedCell object from the SharedMap and listening for the new SharedCell being added to the SharedMap.

const schema = {
    initialObjects: {
        map: SharedMap,
    dynamicObjectTypes: [ SharedCell ],

const { container, services } = await client.getContainer(id, schema);
const map =;

const newCell = await container.create(SharedCell); // Create a new SharedCell
map.set("cell-id", newCell.handle); // Attach the new SharedCell

// ...

const cellHandle = map.get("cell-id"); // Get the handle
const cell = await cellHandle.get(); // Resolve the handle to get the object

// or

const cell = await map.get("cell-id").get(); // Get and resolve handle

// Listening for new dynamic objects
map.on("valueChanged", (changed) => {
    if (changed.key === "cell-id") {
        const handle = map.get(changed.key);
        handle.get().then((cell) => {
            // ...

For more information about handles see Handles .

When to use dynamic objects

Dynamic objects are more difficult to work with than initial objects, but are especially valuable in two scenarios:

  • When the app has a very large data set. Because dynamic objects are loaded into memory on demand, using them can reduce boot time of your application by delaying when the objects are loaded.
  • When the data needed by the app will vary depending on choices made by the user. Dynamic objects are also not strictly defined in the container schema. This enables your app to create containers with flexible, user-generated schemas.

An example where this is useful is building a collaborative storyboarding application. In this scenario, you can have a large number of individual boards that make up the storyboard. By using a dynamic shared object for each board your code can load the boards on demand as the user accesses them, instead of having to load them all in memory at once.